Integration of effective literacy-related instructional tactics can enhance students’ learning process. Literacy skills of speaking, viewing, reading, listening, and writing help students to obtain and recall content knowledge and abilities.
Reading is a continuous process of fathoming print and graphic texts. In fact, the reading process entails active thinking where readers decode print or visual information. Throughout the reading process, readers unconsciously apply several reading strategies. The reading process divides into several sections.
Preparing To Read
- Establish a goal: First; the user should prove the authors’ point of view. It is critical to understand the characters, plot, style, and theme.
- Screening the text: Good readers can locate information in various documents. The previewing process entails dividing information into documents, graphic features, heading, paragraphs and more.
- Layout an understanding plan: Before reading, one should be able to establish three quick conclusions based on the purpose and preview of work.
- Identifying signal words: authors use signal words and phrases to connect ideas and helps the reader follow a flow of information. These connectors include words like after, then, before, later and more.
- Predict: the reader should key words, signal phrases, and layout should help the reader predict what a text or graphic entails.
- Mark: this strategy is synonymous as reading with a purpose. This approach entails underlining significant bits, issues, symbols, and words.
- Question: Also pose questions to the author about the text. Question the place, events, people, or facts in the reading material.
- Establish connections: the connection tactic entails reacting, predicting, visualizing, and clarifying. The connection should be text-to-text, text-to-self, or text-to-world.
- Contextualize for meaning; in other words, use context to find meaning.
- Inference: a reader should be able to read between the lines and link the text to several ideas and thus establish an informed guess.
- Arranging ideas from least to most important; read the passage quietly and determine the importance of ideas.
- Sorting ideas with a concept map: this strategy complements the arrangement of ideas from least to most important. The tactic establishes a relationship between all ideas in a text.
- Use of graphic organizers; headings, subheadings, arrows, charts, numbers among others help a reader to understand a text as well as maintain the flow.
- Visualizing: invisible texts, such as opinions and background experiences, in the reader’s mind, enhance one’s understanding. Getting the picture improves understanding the concept.
- Taking notes: regardless of the content area, making notes aids readers monitor their comprehension and assists writers in laying out ideas.
- Stop and recall: reflect on the accuracy of the three quick conclusions. Also, the reader should consider the difference in understanding before and after reading.
- Read again with a goal: Through this rereading strategy, the reader returns and verifies earlier purposes. Did the text answer all the reader’s questions? Did it approve or disapprove previous connections?
- Adjust reading speed: while reading to understand, the speed in slower than in narrations.
- Recall and structure: Through this strategy, the reader makes a note of the characters, conflicts, ideas, and concepts.
- Skimming and scanning: skimming entails a quick glance that identifies the main idea of a paragraph or chapter while scanning narrows down to specific details of an article or section.
- Read aloud: one of the most effective reading strategies is reading out loud. The approach helps the reader grasp ideas quickly and identifies unintended omissions.
Responding to Reading
- Reacting to Graffiti or text: Graffiti as a reading strategy can be used prior or after reading. It entails working in small groups so readers can generate and record ideas. Hearing from other readers expands one’s understanding
- Paraphrasing and summarizing: a good reader should be able to describe a text with alternative and concise words.
- Reaching a conclusion: a person reads, thinks, and therefore decides. The conclusion may be based on one or multiple sources of information. This strategy helps readers to develop opinions and content vital for persuasive writing.
- Making judgments: readers make an informed and unbiased decision after analyzing different perspectives. The answers may be or not be in the text. This strategy helps readers to be critical thinkers.
Rebecca Serravallo is a best-selling author of Reading-related books. She has over ten years of experience as a staff developer and a consultant at the Teachers Reading and Writing Project Expert Essay Writer and others. She holds a BA degree from Harvard University. And she is available in evening on social site at Facebook _ Twitter.